ESPID Education. Büsch K. Jun 7, 2011; 7762 Disclosure(s): This study was Funded by Abbott Laboratories. KG and KB are employees of Abbott Laboratories. HK is a consultant for Abbott Laboratories.
Ms. Katharina Büsch
Ms. Katharina Büsch

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Background and objective: RSV is the most prevalent cause for lower respiratory tract
infection (LRTI) hospitalizations in infants under 2 years of age. Palivizumab for RSV
prophylaxis helps reduce the risk of severe RSV disease that requires hospitalization in high-
risk infants. The objective was to determine the difference in hospital length of stay (LOS)
among premature infants who received and did not receive RSV prophylaxis.

Methods: Premature infants (< 37 weeks of gestational age) hospitalized within the first year
of life for a LRTI were extracted from the I3 Medical Claims database (2000-2008).
Prophylaxed infants were defined as having at least 1 dose of palivizumab prior to
hospitalization. Multivariate regression determined the difference in hospital LOS, while
adjusting for confounders including birth gestational age, birth weight, age at admission and
medical comorbidities.

Results: The database identified1728 premature infants that were hospitalized due to RSV-
confirmed LRTI. 36 (2.1%) had received palivizumab. Univariate analysis showed
palivizumab-prophylaxed infants had more comorbidities (p=0.038), and were born at an
earlier gestational age (p=0.005). The multivariate model revealed that prophylaxed infants
had, on average,1.4 fewer days LOS in hospital for severe RSV (p-value=0.032).

Conclusions: These data suggest that compared to premature infants not receiving at least 1
dose of palivizumab, there is an independent association between prophylaxed infants and a
decreased LOS for a severe RSV hospitalization. Reasons for this finding, validation of these
results in other country databases, as well as an assessment of the impact of full palivizumab
adherence and LOS, warrant further research.
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