ESPID Education. Pino Ramírez R. Jun 7, 2011; 7791
Mrs. Rosa Pino Ramírez
Mrs. Rosa Pino Ramírez

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Background. A decrease <2% in HIV mother-to-child transmission has occurred upon the implementation of prophylactic measures. Most HIV-uninfected infants are perinatally exposed to antiretrovirals, and potential long-term adverse effects of such exposure remains of concern. Low bone mineral content (BMC) is a recognized complication of HIV infection that has been noted more frequently in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but very scarce data on this issue are available for children perinatally exposed to antiretrovirals.

Materials and Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of HIV-uninfected prepubertal children born to HIV-infected mothers and perinatally exposed to antiretrovirals that are followed up in tertiary-care pediatric hospital in Barcelona (Spain). The following exclusion criteria were used: age at birth below 35 weeks, birth at weight >3SD or <3SD, chronic conditions and long-term use of corticoids. BMC was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Clinical, anthropometric data and dietary intake of calcium (mg/day) were obtained at the time of assessment.

Results: BMC was measured in 70 prepubertal children (51% females; mean age: 6.8 years, range: 4-9 years). Mean (range) daily calcium intake estimations were 820mg (600-1350mg). Mean (range) BMC Z-score values were -0.08 SD (-1.99 to +2.15) and were not different from a population norm Z-score. When exposure to antiretrovirals (type and time of exposure) and other perinatal variables (exposure to other drugs, ethnicity, weight at birth or prematurity) were taken into account, differences were neither observed.

Conclusions. HIV-uninfected prepubertal children perinatally exposed to antiretrovirals show normal BMC values.

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